The Sacred Books of Mormonism

To understand Mormonism, we must study the primary sources of Mormon teaching. The Book of MormonThe Pearl of Great Price and Doctrines and Covenants are the unique sacred books of the Mormon Church. These books are held by Mormons to be inspired by God and superior to the Bible.
We are going to examine these books as to their genuineness, truthfulness and authenticity in the light of the Bible, orthodox theology, history and the sciences.  Many Mormons claim that only the doctrinal portions of their sacred books are important and the other portions that deal with history and related subjects are not important or relevant to an examination.
In response to this, we must point out that while doctrine is very important, if the historical parts are inaccurate and false, these books could not have come from God because a perfect God could not give an imperfect revelation.  Any religion which does not let its books of authority be logically examined, does not have any books of authority.
One Mormon leader, Dr. Ross T. Christianson of Brigham University stated concerning The Book of Mormon,
Let me say that it makes a great deal of difference whether the events recounted actually happened.  If the books history is fallacious, its doctrine cannot be genuine.1
In How To Answer A Mormon (Minn., Bethany House: 1983), we examined the false prophecies of Joseph Smith.  Since this as been done elsewhere, we will omit any references to false prophecies in this study.


Part I

A.  The Story
The Book of Mormon is the purported history of the origins of two great civilizations that existed in the Americas before 1492.  According to the book's account, there have been two great ancient migrations to the New World.  The first one was about 2,250 B.C.
These people originally lived around the tower of Babel.  The Lord told a prophet to build barges for a transoceanic trip to a new world.  The Lord gave the prophet a complete blueprint for the barges and they were built accordingly.
After the barges were finished, the people complained to the Lord that He had forgotten to put something in the design of the barges.  God had forgotten to put windows or holes in the barges and the people knew once they closed the door, they would suffocate.
The Lord commanded two round windows be cut in the barges.  One was to be cut in the roof and one in the bottom of each barge.  The people again complained that the water would rush in the barge if a hole were cut in the bottom.  The Lord then commanded them to plug up the hole in the bottom of the barges.
The people then left the Old World and after 340 days at sea, all the barges landed in the same place at the same time on the West Coast of Central America.  Here the Jeredites built a large civilization.  Unfortunately, the Jeredites were extremely warlike and they exterminated themselves.
The second and more important of the two migrations occurred around 600 B.C.  This migration was headed by Lehi and his sons.  The Lord told Lehi to leave Jerusalem and to come to the New World.  God again gave the blueprints for the ship.  The ship was constructed and they crossed the ocean and landed in Central America.  There they built a large and industrious civilization.  Laman, a son of Lehi, was so rebellious and wicked that God cursed him with a black skin (II Nephi 5:21).  His descendants are the American Indians.  These people were called the Lamanites.  Nephi, the other son of Lehi and his descendants became the Nephites.  These two civilizations were constantly at war with one another.
After His resurrection, Jesus came to the Nephites, preached the Gospel to them, instituted baptism, the Lord's Supper and other church institutions.  The Lamanites proved too strong for the Nephites and after several great battles the Nephites were annihilated except for one man by the name of Mormon.  He is the one who collected the history of his people and engraved them on golden plates.  He then took the plates and hid them in a hill in Palmyra, New York.  He was killed after this.
In 1827, Mormon, who now called Moroni because he had become an angel after death, revealed the location of the plates to Joseph Smith.  Smith found the plates and translated the "Reformed Egyptian" with the aid of a pair of magical spectacles.  His translation of these golden plates is the present- day Book of Mormon.


B. The Origin of The Book of Mormon
There are several different theories as to its origin.  Some scholars believe that Smith wrote the book himself.2  But this is no longer held by most scholars.
Most scholars have come to the conclusion that the Book Of Mormon was originally a romantic novel written by Solomon Spalding.3 Smith and Rigdon had the clear opportunity to steal it and then reworked it by inserting the "religious" material.  The evidence for this has been gathered by Crowdrey, Davis and Scales in their book, Who Wrote The Book Of Mormon?, (Santa Ana, CA.: Vision House, 1977).
As the above authors demonstrate, a handwriting analysis of the original text of the Book of Mormon reveals that the bulk of the manuscript is in the handwriting of Spalding and not Smith.  The evidence seems to be conclusive to anyone with an objective view.
Mormons have claimed at times that the ideas in the Book of Mormon were so new and startling that they could not be part of a previously existing work.  But this is not true.  The idea that Jews had migrated to the New World was not a new idea.  The idea was first mentioned by Menasseh Ben Israel in his book, The Hope of Israel in 1650.  His book was printed in Latin, Spanish and English and stirred up a great deal of controversy.  Menasseh was involved in the cabalistic and occultic arts of his day.  Historical research has revealed that there is nothing in the book that had not already appeared in print long before the book came out.


C. The Bible and the Book of Mormon
My purpose in this section is to demonstrate that The Book of Mormon contradicts the Bible.  A person must choose between these two books and he must label one false and the other true.  One foundational principle is the older revelation always judges any supposed newer revelation.
1. Micah 5:2 and Matt. 2:1, state Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem.  But The Book of Mormon in Alma 7:9, 10, clearly states, "the Son of God...shall be born of Mary at Jerusalem.”  Jerusalem is a city (I Nephi 1:4) and the contradiction is irreconcilable.
2. The prophet Jeremiah and Lehi were contemporary prophets according to The Book of Mormon.  Jeremiah said that there were no prophets preaching the truth in his day.  Lehi contradicts Jeremiah in I Nephi 1:4 by stating, "There came many prophets prophesying unto the people that they must repent or the great city Jerusalem must be destroyed.”  Is the Bible true or The Book of Mormon?  This is a clear contradiction.
3. In Num. 21:5-9, Moses says God sent "fiery serpents" into the camp of Israel to punish them.  But The Book of Mormon in I Nephi 17:41 states God sent "fiery flying serpents" among the Israelites.  The Book of Mormon not only contradicts the Bible but who has ever seen a "fiery flying serpent?"
4. Immediately after God created Adam and Eve, He commanded them to have children and to fill the earth with mankind (Gen. 1:28).  The Book of Mormon in 2 Nephi 2:22-25 states that Adam and Eve had to sin in order to have children.  They sinned in order to obey God's command!  The Book of Mormon further states that Adam and Eve knew no joy and did no good until they had sinned.  The original sin was the first good thing Adam ever did!  Not only does this teaching contradict the Bible but it is a glorifying of the first sin.
5. 3 Nephi 12:2 and Moroni 8:11, state that remission of sins is the result of baptism while the Bible states remission of sins is by faith alone (Acts 10:43; 16:30, 31).  Salvation by baptism is salvation by works and the Bible emphatically says salvation is "not of works" but "through faith" (Eph. 2:8,9).  The gospel of The Book of Mormon is not the gospel of the Bible (Gal. 1:6-9).
6. Not only does The Book of Mormon contradict the Bible but it also plagiarizes over 27,000 words from the 1611 King James Version.5 Compare 2 Nephi 12-14 with Isa. 2-14; 3 Nephi 13:1-18 with Matt. 6:1-23; Mosiah 14 with Isa. 53.  The important thing that should shake every Mormon is the question, "How did Joseph Smith happen to translate The Book of Mormon's Reformed Egyptian into perfect King James English?”  The only logical conclusion one can believe is that whoever wrote The Book of Mormon did it after 1611 and quoted extensively from the King James Version.  Another damaging observation about theBook of Mormon is that whoever quoted the King James, quoted some verses modern scholars now reject.6 The Mormons are hard put to answer this one.
We have found The Book of Mormon directly contradicting the Bible as well as orthodox theology.  The Book of Mormon must be rejected, for it could not be a revelation from God anymore than the Muslim Koran.


D. Scientific Evidence Against the Book of Mormon
The scientific mistakes in The Book of Mormon are abundant.  We have selected a few of the clearest ones for examination.
1. Joseph Smith claims in The Pearl of Great Price that a Professor Charles Anthon of Columbia University, saw the characters on the golden plates and identified them as being "Egyptian, Chaldie, Assyriac and Arabic; and said they were true characters.”  7 If this were true if adds significant evidence for the genuineness of The Book of Mormon.  But this is not true!  Professor Anthon denies his authenticating the characters.  Walter R. Martin has reproduced the letter sent by Professor Anthon to Mr. Howe.
In the letter Anthon says,
"The whole perfectly false.”  8

Furthermore he states the whole Mormon claim is a scheme to get people's money.  To disregard the testimony of Professor Anthon is irrational.
2. After traveling for three days from Jerusalem along the Red Sea, Lehi and his family found a large valley and a river that emptied into the Red Sea.  There they rested and refreshed themselves.9

The story is delightful but false.  There was no such valley in history and there was no river anywhere along the shore of the Red Sea.10 If there had been a large river in the area described by The Book of Mormon, there would have been a large prosperous civilization there.  If not, it would have been a stopping place for all the desert caravans.  It would be found in some ancient records and there should be some evidence still extant.11 But the fact is, it never existed and thus The Book of Mormon is historically and geographically false.
3. The archeological evidence against The Book of Mormon is overwhelming.  According toThe Book of Mormon the people in the Old World were using steel weapons and tools before 600 B.C.  In the New World steel weapons, tools and machines were in use before 399 B.C.12 But steel was not invented or processed until 1856!13  This must be acknowledged as a mistake in the book.
4. The civilizations in the Americas are described in the following terms by The Book of Mormon: "The whole face of the land was covered with buildings - people as the sands of the sea" (Mormon 1:7); "silks, fine linen, oxen, cows, sheep, swine, goats, horses, asses, elephants" (Ether 9:17-19); Alma 1:29); "two million men plus their wives and children are killed" (Ether 16:2); "ships, temples like Solomon's synagogues, sanctuaries all built after the manner of the Jews" (Heldman 3:14; 2 Nephi 5:15,16; Alma 16:13); "swords, cimeters, breast plates, head plates, armor" (Alma 43:18-21, Ether 15:15); "houses and chariots" (Alma 18:9; 20:6; 3 Nephi 3:22,21:14). Thirty- one large cities are named in the book.  Metal coins used as money 82 B.C. (Alma 11:1-19).  All the people were literate and bi-lingual.14 The Smithsonian Institute and the archeological department of Columbia University have gone on official record stating The Book of Mormon's descriptions of the civilizations in America are false from beginning to end.  There were no elephants, cows, pigs, goats, horses, chariots, silk, etc. in America before 1492.15
5. There were no remains or traces of Jewish temples or anything that could be identified with the civilization described in The Book of Mormon.16
6. The weapons of warfare mentioned in the book included bows and arrows.  The interesting thing is that bows and arrows were not in America until after A.D. 1000.  The Book of Mormon gave bows and arrows to the Indians 600 years too early.17
7. The language of The Book of Mormon and its people was supposedly Reformed Egyptian.  The truth is that the language never existed.  This fact is conclusive evidence against accepting the book.18
8. The American Indian is Jewish and his skin is black according to The Book of Mormon (2 Nephi 5:21).  Anthropology has established that the Indians are Mongoloid in origin and their skin is not black.19  If the Mormon Church cannot prove the American Indian is Jewish or Semitic in origin and their skins are black, they will have to recognize that The Book of Mormon is false.
9. One more scientific evidence against The Book of Mormon is the corrections, additions and subtractions in the text of the book.  When you compare the 1830 edition with the present edition, you will find over 3,000 changes.20 The changes are in grammar and theology.  Truth in 1830 is truth today because truth does not change.  If the 1830 edition was inspired, the present edition which is radically different from it cannot be inspired.
Examine the following examples: 

  1. The title page of the 1830 edition said that Joseph Smith was the author.  The present edition says he only translated it.  Why the change in the authorship of the book? 
  2. I Nephi 11:18, in 1830 read, "the virgin thou seest is the mother of God.”  The present editions read, "the virgin thou seest is the mother of the Son of God.”  (The Roman Catholic Church would prefer the 1830 edition!) 
  3. I Nephi 11:21, in 1830 read, "Behold the Lamb of God, yea, even the Eternal Father.”  It now reads, "Behold the Lamb of God, yea, even the Son of the Eternal Father." 
  4. In I Nephi 19:16-20, there are over fifty changes.
  5. Mosiah 21:28 read, "King Benjamin" in 1830.  It now reads, "King Mosiah.”  The two names are vastly different thus the editions contradict each other.


We have found The Book of Mormon to be false Biblically, geographically, archeologically, anthropologically, historically, and linguistically and to have internal contradictions as evidenced by the corrections in the book since 1830.  The Book of Mormon is spurious and a gross miscarriage of the truth.


Part II

This sacred book of the Mormon Church is a collection of the revelations given to Joseph Smith and his successors.  Each revelation has an introduction with the date, place and a summary of the message.  While The Book of Mormon is mainly historical in nature,Doctrine and Covenants is mainly doctrinal.  Since we are dealing with doctrine, our sole guide for this examination is the Bible.
Judaism, Christianity and Mohammedanism are the three great monotheistic faiths.  Polytheism is considered paganism by each of these faiths.  In Doctrine and CovenantsMormonism reveals itself as a polytheistic religion.  This makes Mormonism paganism by definition.  The following evidence is given to prove that polytheism is a part of Mormon teaching.

I. "Gods exist and we had better strive to prepare to be one with them."
Discourses of Brigham Young, page 351.21

II. "In the beginning the head of the Gods called a council of the Gods and they came together and concocted a plan to create the world and people it."
The Journal of Discourses, Volume VI, page 3.  (.22)

III. "Each of these gods, including Jesus Christ and His Father, being in possession of not merely an organized spirit but a glorious body of flesh and bone..."
Key to the Science of Theology, page 42, by Parley Pratt.23

IV. "Many men say there is one God; the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost are only one God!  I say this is a very strange God anyhow...all are to be crammed into one God.” Joseph Smith's Teaching, page 55, by E.F. Parry.24

V. "We believe in the plurality of Gods."
Brigham Roberts in Mormon Doctrine of Deity, page 11.25

VI. In the Mormon Catechism for Children, page 13, you find this question and answer, "Are there more Gods than one?
Yes, many."26

VII. "The Gods organized and formed the Heavens and the earth.”  27
The evidence is conclusive that Mormonism is a polytheistic religion.  As a matter of fact, it is very much like the old pagan religions of Greece and Rome.  The ancient gods and goddesses had human bodies and used sex to have divine children.  See Dr. Morey's book,The Battle Of The Gods.
Mormonism is not Christian but pagan.  The Bible emphatically declares there has always been only one God and there will never by any more gods in the future.28 Mormonism being polytheistic must deny the Trinity and it does.29 Not only does Mormonism deny the Trinity but it denies the spiritual nature of God the Father.

"The Father has a body of flesh and bone as tangible as man's.”  30

"God Himself was once as we are now and is an exalted man...”  The Journal of Discourses, Volume VI, page 3.31

"As man is, God once was; as God is, many may become.”  "Millennial Star," Volume 54, by Lorenzo Snow, former president of the Mormon Church.32

"Therefore we know that both the Father and the Son are in form and stature perfect men; each of them possesses a tangible body, infinitely pure and perfect and attended by transcendent glory, nevertheless a body of flesh and bones.”  33
Not only is God the Father an exalted man but, according to the original doctrines of Mormonism, this man is Adam!  That modern Mormons are either ignorant or deceptive about this doctrine does not negate the fact that this is what was taught by both Smith and Young.

"When our father Adam came into the Garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him...  He is our father and our God and the only God with which we have to do.”  Brigham Young, in The Journal of Discourses, Volume I, page 50.34

In Doctrines and Covenants, Adam is declared to be:

"The Father,"

"The Prince of All,"

"The Ancient of Days,"

"The possessor the keys of salvation."35

In opposition to this, the Scriptures states,

"God is not a man; God is Spirit; A Spirit hath not flesh and bones; Before me there was no God formed; Neither shall there be after me; For I am God and not a man; There is none else; There is none like unto me.”  36

If Adam could make Godhood, cannot others make it?  The answer is yes!  Section 132 ofDoctrine and Covenants is entitled "Essentials for the attainment of the Godhood.”  Man can become a god!37 The only essential requirement is that you have a celestial marriage.38 If you do not, upon death you will become an angel.39
Space cannot permit me to bring forth more the bizarre doctrines which we found inDoctrine and Covenants.  These revelations are not true to God's Word and are to be considered "another Gospel which is not another.”  (Gal. 1:6-9)  God's eternal anathema rests on this book.


Part III
The Pearl of Great Price is a collection of the revelations and Bible translations of Joseph Smith.  This book is doctrinal in nature.  The doctrines presented are anti-Biblical and spurious.  Here are a few examples of its bizarre teachings.

1.  Polytheism is taught in Abraham 4.  This chapter is a paraphrase of Gen. 1 and 2 with a notable difference, everywhere Genesis says "God," Abraham 4 says "Gods!”  These "Gods" are eternal (Abra. 3:18).  They were the preexistent souls of men (Abra. 3:23).  Abraham is declared as one of these "gods" who took part in the creation work.  (Abra. 3:23).

2.  The creation was not ex nihilo ( lit. "out of nothing") but the forming and organizing of already existing materials.40 Matter is eternal according to Section 93:33, of Doctrine and Covenants.

Therefore the creation could not be ex nihilo.  Needless to say, the universe is not eternal and the creation was ex nihilo.

There are many proofs to show the universe is not eternal.41
The Bible definitely teaches creation ex nihilo in Gen. 1:1.

3.  The "seed" of God referred to in His promise to Abraham was Christ according to Gal. 3:16.  The Pearl of Great Price in Abraham 2:11, states the "seed" was the Mormon priesthood.  This is a clear contradiction of the Bible.

4. The most shocking example of false teaching found in this book is that not only is God a man but God is a sinful man!  According to Abraham 2:22-25, God told Abraham to deceive Pharaoh and to tell him that Sarah was not his wife but his sister.  God was the author of the deception!  The Biblical account states the author of its sinful deception and scheme was Abraham (Gen. 12:10-20).  The teaching of Abraham 2:22-25 is a slam against the character and nature of God.  The Scriptures teach God cannot lie and He cannot tell others to do so.42

5. Perhaps the greatest refutation of The Pearl of Great Price is the so-called "Book of Abraham.”  Smith had staked his inspiration and prophetic authority on his ability to translate certain Egyptian scrolls that he had purchased from a traveling show.  He claimed that they were some long lost works of Abraham.  But these same exact scrolls were rediscovered and then translated by modern scholars who have ALL stated that the scrolls are part of the Egyptian Book of the Dead and do not even mention Abraham.  Thus Smith's "inspired" translation is a fraud.  For a full discussion of the details of this fascinating story, contact: Modern Microfilm Company: (Box 1884, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84110) for their literature on the subject.
From the foregoing examples, it can be seen that The Pearl of Great Price cannot be a revelation from God because it contradicts God's eternally revealed Word, the Bible.  This book is spurious and must be rejected.

The Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants and The Pearl of Great Price have been examined in the light of Scripture and have been found to be false.  Not only do these books contradict the Bible but also secular science such as archeology, anthropology, linguistics, geography and history.  The Mormon claim of inspiration for these books is therefore rejected.  To the Christian, there is only one divinely inspired book, the Bible.  It alone can claim absolute infallibility.  It alone demands absolute obedience.  From the evidence printed in this research paper, we can only say with Martin Luther of old, "Sola Scriptura!"


Appendix I
Mormonism View of the Bible
From the following statements it will be evident that Mormonism downgrades the trustworthiness, truthfulness and value of the Bible.

1. "From sundry revelations which had been received, it was apparent that many important points touching the salvation of man had been taken from the Bible or lost before it was completed.”  (Joseph Smith, Section 70 D.C.)

2. "Because ye have a Bible ye need not suppose it contains all my words or need ye suppose that I have not caused none to be written.”  (B. of M. 101:10)

3. "We believe the Bible to be the Word of God as far as it is translated correctly.”  (Section 8 of the Articles of Faith)

4. "Guided by The Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants and the Spirit of the Lord, it is not difficult for one to discern the errors in the Bible.”  (Doctrines of Salvation, Volume III, p. 191.)43

5. "There are many plain and precious things taken away from the book...and also many covenants of the Lord.”  (Book of Mormon 23:26-28)

6. "Let the Bible then be read reverently and with prayerful care, the reader ever searching the light of the Spirit that He may discern between truth and the errors of men.”  (Articles of Faith, p. 237, by J.E. Talmage)


Appendix II
The Mormon Priesthood
Section 13 and 107 of Doctrine and Covenants teach that the priesthood of Melchizedek was conferred of Joseph Smith and will be conferred on his successors.  The Bible states that the Melchizedekian priesthood was given to Christ and He will not pass it on to anyone.  Heb. 7:24 states, "But this man, because He continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood."
The word "unchangeable" in the KJV is a mistranslation of the Greek word "aparbatos" which means literally, "not liable to pass to a successor"44 or "untransferrable".45 Modern translators have made the correction.
Goodspeed: "But He continues forever, so His priesthood is untransferrable"
Phillips: "priesthood that needs no successor"
Williams: "Because He Himself lives on forever, enjoys the only priesthood that has no successor"
Wuest: "the priesthood which is untransferrable"
Weymouth "but He, because He continues forever, has a priesthood which does not pass to any successor"
The evidence is conclusive that the doctrine which teaches the passing on of the Melchizedek priesthood to Joseph Smith or anyone else is false according to Heb. 7:24.


1. Ross T. Christianson, University Archeological Society News Letter, No. 64, (January 30, 1960), (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University), quoted by Fraser, What Does The Book of Mormon Teach (Chicago: Moody Press, 1964), p.12.

2. For this view see: Gordon H. FraserWhat Does The Book of Mormon Teach (Chicago: Moody Press, 1964), pp. 102-109.

3. For this view see: 
Eber D. Howe, Mormonism Unveiled (Painesville: published by the author, 1834).
G. B. Arbaugh, Revelations in Mormonism (Chicago: University of Chicago: 1932).
James D. Boles, The Book Of Mormon, (Rosemead, Ca., Old Path Book Club: 1958).
James H. Snowsen, The Truth About Mormonism, (New York, George Durant, Co.: 1926).

4. Jer. 2:8, 26; 4:9; 5:31; 14: 13-15, etc.

5. Hoekema, The Four Major Cults, (Grand Rapids, Wm. B. Eerdmans:1963), 
p. 85.

6. Walter R. Martin, The Maze of Mormonism, (Grand Rapids, Zondervan: 1962) pp.51-53.

7. PGP:2:62-64.

8. Walter R. Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, (Grand Rapids, Zondervan: 1965) pp.160-161.

9. Book of Mormon: I Neph. 2:5-10.

10. Fraser, ibid., p.33.

11. ibid., pp.33-38.

12Book of Mormon: I Neph. 4:9; Jasom 1:8; 2 Nephi. 5:15.

13. T. W. Wallbank and A. M. Taylor, Civilization Past and Present, (Chicago, Scott, Foresman and Co., 1956), pp. 327-328.

14. Hoekema, ibid., p. 78.

15. Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, ibid., pp. 162-163.

16. ibid.

17. Fraser, ibid., pp. 62, 63.

18. Hoekema, pp.75-87.

19. Fraser, pp. 39-50.

20. Martin, The Maze of Mormonism, pp.49-50; Hoekema, ibid., pp. 23, 82-87.

21. Martin, ibid., p.80.

22. ibid.

23. ibid.

24. ibid., p. 81.

25. W. E. Biederwolf, Mormonism Under the Searchlight, (Grand Rapids, Wm. 
B. Eerdmans: n.d.) p.28.

26. ibid.

27. P.G.P.: Abra. 4:1.

28. Isa. 43:10,11; 44:6,8; 45:5, 18, 22; 46:9; I Cor. 8:4-6.

29. J. E. Talmage, Articles Of Faith, (Salt Lake City, The Church of Jesus 
Christ and the Latter-day Saints Pub.  Co.:1962) pp. 40-41.

30. D. & C.:130:22.

31. Martin, ibid., p. 60.

32. ibid.

33. Talmage, ibid., p.42.

34. Martin, ibid., p.80.

35. D. & C.: 27:11; 78:16; 107:54; 116.

36. Num. 23:19; I Sam. 15:29; Job 9:32; Hos. 11:9; John 4:24; Col. 1:15; John 
1:18; I John 4:12; Isa. 43:10; 46:9.

37. D. & C.: 76:58; 132:20,21,37; 132.

38. D. & C.: 132

39. D. & C.: 7:6; 128:21; 129's intro to sec. 2 & 13.

40. P. G. P.: Abra. 3:4;5.

41. Robert A. Morey, How Old Is The Universe?  (C.I.A., PO Box 7447, 
Orange, CA 92863).

42. Rom. 3:4; Heb. 7:18; Pro. 6:16-18; Rev. 21:8.

43. Hoekema, ibid., p. 23.

44. J. W. Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon Of The New Testament, (Grand 
Rapids, Zondervan: 1962), p. 54.

45. J. S. Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance Of The Bible, (New York, Abingdon Press: 1963), p. 13 of it Greek dictionary.