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Answering Dr. Jamal Badawi

Dr. Robert Morey  

Muhammad in The Bible

For years Muslim scholars have objected to the Christian notion of the Lordship of Christ. They emphatically state that Christians are unaware of the prophecies in their own Scripture which point to the advent of Muhammad. Dr. Jamal Badawi's pamphlet titled, "Muhammad in the Bible" is an obvious case in point.

In his narrative, Dr. Badawi attempts to point out and interpret passages within the Bible which in his opinion uphold the Muslim claims. He earnestly attempts to relate the Biblical passages to the notion that Muhammad was the promised Prophet. However, a deeper examination of the contents of his study, immediately reveal many major errors which though may be unintended, nevertheless serve to misrepresent the Biblical facts.

In the following study we will take the reader through a course of the specific passages alluded to by Dr. Badawi and provide a concise and systematic rebuttal to the claims he has laid out. We will further pose our own counter points and objections and in the process attempt to guide the reader into a more meaningful interpretation of God's Word.

Once the objective reader is faced with the simplicity and the beauty of the Bible, it is hoped that one will begin to gain an important insight into the profound Biblical revelations. As one gazes more intently at the totality of God's masterpiece - the Bible - a wonderful picture begins to emerge of God's plan for the salvation of mankind through the blood of his Son Jesus Christ.

At this juncture we will delve into a point by point examination of Dr. Badawi's pamphlet:
Muslims state that the promise of blessings upon Ishmael confirms, or so it is believed, the prophethood of Muhammad since he is the only prophet to descend from him. Yet when read within context, it becomes quite clear that the blessings upon Ishmael were not prophetic tidings of Muhammad. They rather pointed to lineage and political prosperity.

Ishmael became blessed with twelve sons who ruled as mighty princes to the east of Israel, thus fulfilling God's promises to him. (cf. Gen. 16:7-15; 17:20; 21:13;18)

Yet, Genesis emphasizes the fact that it would be Abraham's descendents from Sarah that would be blessed with kings and prophets, serve in a foreign land for four hundred years, possess Canaan and become the nation of God. ( c.f. Gen. 12:1-3; 15:13-16; 17:15-16,19; 21:12; 22:17-18; 26:24; 28:13-15; 35:11-12)

This point is made crystal clear by God personally after Abraham's prayer on behalf of his firstborn son, Ishmael:

Abraham fell down; he laughed and said to himself "will a son be born to a man a hundred years old? Will Sarah bear a child at the age of ninety?" And Abraham said to God, "If only Ishmael might live under your blessing!" Then God said, "Yes, but your wife Sarah will bear you a son, and you will call him Isaac. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him. And as for Ishmael, I have heard you:

I will surely bless him: I will make him fruitful and will greatly increase his numbers. He will be the Father of twelve rulers, and I will make him into a great nation. But my covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you by this time next year." Gen. 17:17-21

Clearly the Ishmaelites cannot be the ones referred to in these passages, since God's everlasting covenant was made with Isaac.

No such covenant was ever made with Ishmael.

The Quran also bears witness that it was Isaac, not Ishmael, who was the chosen vessel for prophethood and kingship:

"And we bestowed on him Isaac and Jacob, and we established the prophethood and the Scripture among his seed." S. 29:27

The fact that seed refers to Israel is clarified in this passage:

"O children of Israel! Call to mind the (special) favour which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all others (for My message)." S. 2:47

"O children of Israel! Call to mind the special favour which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all others (for My message)." S. 2:122

The fallacy of quoting the Mosaic law, as Badawi does, in regards to the rights of the first born (Deut. 21:15-17) to prove Ishmael's precedence over Isaac does not apply since the law, which came four hundred years after Abraham, would also demand Abraham to observe Sabbath, Passover, sacrificial duties, the forbidding of marrying sisters (something that Jacob did) and so on. The Muslim position is extremely weak in this case.

This fact becomes evident in light of the fact that Genesis records God sovereignly choosing the younger seed over the firstborn. One such example is God selecting Jacob over his older brother Esau:

The LORD said to her (Rebekah, Isaac's wife), "Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples from within you will be separated; one people will be stronger than the other, and the older (Esau) will serve the younger (Jacob).Gen. 25:23

Or Joseph's son Ephraim chosen ahead of his firstborn, Manasseh:

"When Joseph saw his father placing his right hand on Ephraim's head he was displeased; so he took hold of his father's hand to move it from Ephraim's head to Manasseh's head. Joseph said to him, 'No, my father, this is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head.'

"But his father refused and said, 'I know my son, I know. He too will become a people, and he too will become great. Nevertheless, his younger brother will be greater than he, and his descendants will become a group of nations.'" Gen. 48:17-19

In light of these passages and the fact that the Mosaic injunction on the rights of the firstborn had not yet been given, exposes Badawi's extremely weak arguments in support of Ishmael.
Muhammad, not the prophet like Moses:

"I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him." Deut. 18:18.

The verses on the prophet like Moses are often misunderstood to mean Muhammad for the following reasons:

The prophet was to be from among their "brethren" (i.e. Israelites) which would be referring to the Ishmaelites.

Muhammad spoke the words of God (i.e. The Quran) as the passages state the prophet would do.

Muhammad, like Moses, was rejected by his people, fled to Medina (Moses to Midian), came back victorious, establishing a nation, with a law and was head of state and military affairs.

The passage, however defines a prophet like Moses as one who will know God "Face to Face" and perform miraculous feats and wonders. (Deut. 34:10,11) These things 
Muhammad did not do, since Muhammad never saw God* nor did he perform any miracles whatsoever, as the Quran itself testifies. (S. 2:97; 17:90-93)

Secondly, the term "brethren" when read in context can only refer to the twelve tribes of Israel as the opening verses of chapter 18 show:

"The Levitical priests, that is, all the tribe of Levi, shall have no portion or inheritance with Israel...They shall have no inheritance among their brethren." (v.v. 1-2)

Once more, in chapter 17:14-15 the Israelites are told to put one of their "brethren" as king over them, never a foreigner. The fact is that Israel at no time in their history have ever put an Ishmaelite "brother" as king, but always an Israelite i.e. Saul, David, proving that the word does not refer to any nation outside of the twelve tribes of Israel.

Finally, the Quran bears witness that Muhammad was not the Prophet like Moses, since he could not do what the latter did:

But (now) when the Truth has come to them from Ourselves, they say, "Why are not (signs) sent to him (Muhammad), like those which were sent to Moses?" S. 28:48

Even more amazing than the Quran bearing witness that Muhammad was unlike Moses, is the fact that the earliest Muslim biographer, Ibn Ishaq, in his Sira RasulAllah, testifies that Moses wrote of Jesus:

When the Christians of Najran came to the apostle the Jewish rabbis came also and they disputed one with the other before the apostle. Rafi said, 'you have no standing, and he denied Jesus and the Gospel; and a Christian said to the Jews, 'you have no standing' and he denied that Moses was a prophet and denied the Torah.

So God sent down concerning them: 'The Jews say the Christians have no standing; and the Christians say the Jews have no standing, yet they read the Scriptures. They do not know on the day of resurrection concerning their controversy, i.e., each one reads in his book the confirmation of what he denies, so that the Jews deny Jesus though they have the Torah in which God required them by the word of Moses to hold Jesus true; while in the Gospel is what Jesus brought in confirmation of Moses and the Torah he brought from God: So each one denies what is in the hand of the other. (Alfred Guilliame, The Life of Muhammad, p.258)

The only person who fits this prophetic profile is Jesus Christ the Lord. This is due to the following reasons:

Christ states that Moses wrote about him. (c.f. John 5:46)

The Apostles quote this passage as being fulfilled in Christ. (c.f. John 1:45; Acts 3:17-24)

On both their births, infant deaths were enacted. (c.f. Ex. 1:15-16,22; Mt. 2:13)

Both were rescued by divine intervention. (c.f. Ex. 2:2-10; Mt. 2:13)

Christ being the Son of God, knew God "face to face"- as did Moses. In fact, Christ is the image of God and is God's exact representation. (c.f. Mt. 11:27; John 1:1-3,14,18; John 14:9; Col. 1:15-17; Heb. 1:2,3)

God prepared Moses for his mission by his wandering in the wilderness for forty years; Christ for forty days. (c.f. Ex. 7:7; Mt. 4:1)

Christ, like Moses, shone with glorious light at the Mount of Transfiguration. (c.f. Ex. 34:29; Mt. 17:2)

Christ performed greater miracles than Moses. An example would be raising the dead. (c.f. John 11:25-26,43-44)

Christ spoke the words of God alone. (c.f. John 8:28)

Christ, like Moses, intercedes on behalf of men. (c.f. Exodus 32:30-32; 1 Tim. 2:5)

Christ, like Moses, is the mediator of God's covenant. (c.f. Exodus 24:4-8; Mark 14:24; 1 Cor. 11:23-25)

Christ and Moses liberated their people from bondage; one from slavery, the other from sin. (c.f. Exodus; Isaiah 53; John 8:32-36; Gal. 5:1)

Christ, like Moses, is an Israelite from the tribe of Judah. (c.f. Num. 26:59; Luke 3:22-38)

4. The prophecy of Sinai, Seir and Paran is not a prophecy of Judaism, Christianity and Islam:

Paran and Seir are located near Egypt in the Sinai Peninsula, as any good Bible map will demonstrate. It is purely wishful thinking to claim that Seir refers to Jesus' ministry in Palestine, or that Paran is near Mecca, when Paran was thousands of miles away near southern Palestine in northeastern Sinai!

Proof of this can be found in the Holy Bible itself:

"And the children of Israel took their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the cloud (of God) rested in the wilderness of Paran." Numbers 10:12

"And afterward the people (Israelites) removed from Hazeroth, and pitched in the wilderness of Paran." Numbers 12:16

"And Moses by the commandment of the Lord sent them from the wilderness of Paran...And they went and came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Paran, to Kadesh..." Numbers 13:3,26

"These be the words which Moses spake unto all Israel on this side of Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain over against the Red sea, between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab." Deuteronomy 1:1

All these verses prove that Paran could not possibly be Mecca but a locale near Sinai, since Moses and the Israelites never settled in that part of Arabia. Hence, Badawi's assertion fails in the light of the biblical evidence.

Isaiah 42:1-13 does not prophecy the advent of Muhammad. It rather proclaims the coming of the promised Messiah.

There are four Servant passages in the book of Isaiah: 42:1-13; 49:1-9; 50:4-11; 52:13 - 53:12.

When read as a single unit it becomes obvious that the Servant spoken of can only be Jesus Christ. This point becomes forcefully clear after reading the 53rd chapter which speaks of the crucifixion, death and the resurrection of the Servant on behalf of fallen humanity - a deed fulfilled only in the life of Christ.

Further evidence which points to Jesus being the Servant of Yahweh is provided in verse 1 of chapter 42. This verse proclaims that God's Spirit would rest upon the Servant. Several other passages in Isaiah establishes this Servant's identity:

"A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse; from his roots a branch will bear fruit. The Spirit of the LORD will rest on him - the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of power, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD - and he will delight in the fear of the LORD. He will not judge by what he sees with his eyes, or decide by what he hears with his ears; but with righteousness he will judge the needy, with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth; with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked. Righteousness will be his belt and faithfulness the sash around his waist." (Isaiah 11:1-5)

"In that day the root of Jesse will stand as a banner for the peoples; the nations will rally to him, and his place of rest will be glorious." (Isaiah 11:10)

"The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is upon me, because the LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners, to proclaim the year of the LORD's favor and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all who mourn." (Isaiah 61:1-2)

Verses 1 and 2 of Isaiah 11 identifies the Servant as the root of Jesse, i.e. a descendant of Jesse. Jesse was the father of King David, and the passages point to the fact that the Servant of God will come from the house of David. (c.f. Ruth 4:22; 1 Sam. 16:1-3; Mt. 1:6)
It is Jesus, not Muhammad, who descended from David's line. Jesus, not Muhammad, had the Spirit of the LORD descend upon him after emerging from the waters of baptism (Mt. 3:16-17).

In fact one of these very passages of Isaiah, the one found in chapter 61:1-2, is quoted by Jesus as finding its fulfillment in him and in no one else. (Luke 4:14-21)

Isaiah 21:13-17 does not prophecy Muhammad or the battle of Badr, but is a prophecy about the judgement enacted upon Arabia by God through the mighty armies of Assyria and Babylon respectively.

The Assyrian armies laid siege upon the Arabs in 732 B. C., with Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon following suit. In fact, Nebuchadnezzar defeated the people of Kedar during his reign in 599-598 B. C. (c.f. Jeremiah 49:28-33)

Furthermore, v.16 specifies the time this prophecy was to be fulfilled:

"For thus the LORD said to me: 'within a year', according to the year of a hired man, all the glory of Kedar will fail..."

Hence, the attempts to make this passage a reference to an event which took place nearly a thousand years later is soundly refuted when read in context.

Isaiah 28:11 does not prophecy the revelation of the Quran, which is in "another tongue". Instead, it refers to the Assyrian takeover of Ephraim. (c.f. Isaiah 28:1-29).

God spoke to his people by bringing forth judgement upon them for their wickedness.
He manifested his judgement by using a foreign nation which spoke a foreign tongue (i.e. Aramaic), to subdue and punish his rebellious people.

Furthermore, this passage on Israel being judged by a foreign tongue had been foretold centuries beforehand in the Mosaic Law:

"The LORD will bring you and the king whom you set over you to a nation which neither you nor your fathers have known, and there you shall serve other gods - wood and stone." Deut. 28:36

"You shall beget sons and daughters, but they shall not be yours for they shall go into captivity." Deut. 28:41

"The LORD will bring a nation against you from afar, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flies, a nation whose language you will not understand, a nation of fierce countenance, which does not respect the elderly nor show favor to the young... They shall besiege you at all your gates until your high and fortified walls, which you trust, come down throughout all your land: and they shall besiege you at all your gates throughout all your land which the LORD your God has given you." Deut. 28:49-50,52

Thus to see Islam in any of these prophecies is purely wishful thinking.

The Paraclete does not refer to Muhammad, but to the coming of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. The Paraclete of John cannot be referring to Muhammad for the following reasons:

The Paraclete could not be seen by human eyes, but would indwell the disciples at the same time. (14:17)

This could not possibly be referring to Muhammad because people did see him. Secondly, the Paraclete could dwell within a group of individuals at the same time, making him immaterial and omnipresent. These, being the attributes of divinity, tend to suggest that the Paraclete is God.

The Paraclete is the Holy Spirit (14:26).

In orthodox Islamic belief, the Holy Spirit is the angel Gabriel. This fact would disprove the notion that Muhammad is the Paraclete, since this would make him Gabriel!

According to the Holy Scriptures, the Paraclete was to bring glory to Jesus Christ, and yet Muhammad glorified Allah. (16:13-15) Taking the idea of Muhammad as the Paraclete to its natural conclusion, we may claim then that Jesus Christ is Allah, the God of Muhammad!

The Paraclete did arrive as promised, not 600 years later but ten days after the ascension of Jesus to heaven. (Acts 2:1-33)

The reference in Matthew 21:19-21,43 to the kingdom being taken away from Israel and given to a productive nation does not relate to the Ishmaelites. It rather points to the Gentile nations who would accept Jesus as Messiah, Lord and Savior:

"Again I ask: Did they (Israel) stumble as to fall beyond recovery? Not at all! Rather,because of their transgression, salvation has come to the Gentiles to make Israel envious. But if their transgression means riches for the world, their loss means riches for the Gentiles, how much greater riches will their fullness bring?" Romans 11:11-12

"Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called 'uncircumcised' by those who call themselves 'the circumcision' (that done in the body by the hands of men) - remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenant of the promise, without hope and without God in the world.

"But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near through the blood of Christ. For he himself is our peace (salaam), who has made the two one and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility, by abolishing in his flesh the law with its commandments and regulations.

"His purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace (salaam) and in this one body reconcile both of them to God through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility. He came and preached peace (salaam) to you who were far away and peace (salaam) to those who were near. For through him we both have one access to the Father by one Spirit." (Ephesians 2:11-18)

"And they (the inhabitants of heaven) sang a new song: 'You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because you were slain, and with your blood you purchased men for God, from every tribe and language and people and nation. You have made them to be a kingdom of priests to serve our God, and they will reign on the earth.'" (Revelation 5:9-10)

Matthew 21:42,44 reference to the rejected stone which breaks those it falls upon and grinds those who fall on it, points to the Jewish rejection of the Messiahship of Jesus and does not refer to Islam or Muhammad:

"It is by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth whom you crucified but whom God raised from the dead, that this man stands before you healed. He is, 'the stone you buildersrejected, which has become the cornerstone.'" (Acts 4:10-11)

"Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household, built on the foundation of the apostles and the prophets, with Christ himself as the chief cornerstone." (Ephesians 2:19,20)

"As you come to him (Jesus Christ), the living stone - rejected by men but chosen by God and precious to him - you also, like living stones, are being built into a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood, offering spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.

"For in Scripture it says: 'See, I lay a stone in Zion, a chosen and precious cornerstone, and the one who trusts in him will never be put to shame.'

"Now to you who believe, this stone is precious. But to those who do not believe, 'The stone the builders rejected has become the capstone,'

"and, 'A stone that causes men to stumble and a rock that makes them fall.'

"They stumble because they disobey the message - which is also what they are destined for." (1 Peter 2:4-8)

11. Deuteronomy 33:2 does not prophecy Muhammad's take over of Mecca:
The verse states that the LORD (Yahweh) himself will come with "ten thousands of saints", not soldiers as Muhammad did. This prophecy is a reference to the second coming of Jesus 
Christ, the Lord, who will be coming with thousands of his saints. (cf. Mt. 16:27; 25:31-33; Jude :14; Rev. 19:11-16)

Secondly, this advent was meant to be a blessing from God to the children of Israel as indicated in v.1.

Again, this would nullify the notion of this being a prophecy of Islam, since Islam has been a constant thorn and threat to Israel, not a blessing!

The idea that Psalms 84:6 is referring to the Kabah when it speaks of "Baca" which, according to Muslims is an alternative name for Mecca is fallacious since Old Testament Baca is in northern Israel. This is stated within the text itself:

"They go from strength to strength, till each appears before God in Zion." (Ps. 84:7)
Furthermore, the term Baca in Hebrew means either "weeping" or "balsam trees." Hence, the valley of Baca can be translated as the valley of balsam trees. We find reference to such a place located within the Valley of Rephaim, an area approximately 3 or 4 miles south and west of Jerusalem:

"Once more the Philistines came up and spread out in the Valley of Rephaim; so David inquired of the LORD, and he answered, 'Do not go straight up, but circle around behind them and attack them in front of the balsam (Heb. Baca) trees.'" (2 Samuel 5:22-23)

Noting that the valley of Baca is actually less than 5 miles away from Jerusalem, it makes sense that the Psalmist would speak of pilgrims making their way through Baca valley to appear before God in Zion. (v.v. 5-7)

Equally fallacious is the notion that Habakkuk 3:3 refers to Muhammad:

"God came from Teman, the Holy One from Mount Paran. His glory covered the heavens and his praise filled the earth."

Muslims presume that the terms Teman and Paran refer to the advent of Islam in Arabia. Yet, it is clear from the context that it speaks of God coming from Teman and Mount Paran, not Islam or Muhammad. Furthermore, Paran as noted earlier is not near Mecca but thousands of miles away and Teman was a town close to Jericho in the territory of Edom.

Interestingly, in order to prove that Teman is an oasis north of Medina Badawi misquotes J. Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, inferring that Teman being near Medina is a fact affirmed by Christian scholars as well. Yet, Hastings does not say that Teman is located north of Medina, since he was referring to the country of Tema! Badawi has confused the two.

On p.897 of his book we read:

TEMAN - A tribe (and district) of Edom (emphasis ours)

Further, on the same page we also read:

TEMA - In Gn. 25:15 (1 Ch. 7:30), a son of Ishmael.

The country and people meant are still represented by the same name - modern Taima, a large oasis about 200 miles S.E. of the head of the Gulf of 'Akabah, and the same distance due N. Of Medina in W. Arabia.

This exposes a deliberate attempt on Badawi's part to misinform his readers, since he knows that most readers, especially Muslims, will take him at face value without checking out the truth of his claims for themselves.

If in spite of this Muslims still insist that all references to Teman find their fulfillment in Islam, then they must also take all the other references to Teman into consideration as well. For example, in Jeremiah 49:7 God questions Teman's lack of wisdom and in verse 20 the LORD swears to destroy their pastures and flocks. In Ezekiel 25:13, God declares that He will lay the inhabitants of Teman to waste, sending fire to consume them (Amos 1:12), insuring no survivors (Obadiah 8-10). This would mean that Islam is futile since it lacks wisdom and that Muslims will be destroyed by a consuming fire!

Israelites during the time of Jesus were not expecting an Ishmaelite prophet:

Muslims, in an attempt to maintain that Muhammad is THE Prophet spoken of in Deut. 18:18, quote John 1:19-21 to support their arguments. They claim that this passage from the Gospel according to John, is the evidence that THE Prophet had not yet arrived during the time of Christ:

The Jews asked John the Baptist if he were the Christ or Elijah or the Prophet.

In response John answered in the negative three consecutive times. Muslims maintain that Christ did arrive shortly thereafter and that John, although he was not Elijah in actuality, came in the spirit of Elijah (Luke 1:17; Mt. 11:14; 17:10-13), leaving one more that was to come, namely the Prophet. It is then surmised that this Prophet is Muhammad, since he is the only prophet to follow Jesus.

There are three logical arguments against this fallacious line of thinking:
If it were true that the Prophet was to be an Ishmaelite, why did the Jews ask John, an Israelite, if he were that Prophet? The very fact that they did ask an Israelite proves that the Prophet to come had to be from the nation of Israel and could not possibly be a descendant of Ishmael.

The passage does not indicate that the Prophet had not arrived during the time of Jesus' ministry. It rather points to the fact that until the public ministry of Jesus had begun, there had been no prophet like Moses. It needs to be pointed out that when John had been asked this question, Christ had not yet been revealed. Following the initiation of Christ's public ministry, the people knew without doubt that this was indeed THE Prophet spoken of by Moses:

"After the people saw the miraculous sign that Jesus did, they began to say,
Surely, this is THE Prophet who is to come into the world.'" (John 6:14)

"On hearing his words, some of the people said, 'Surely this man is THE Prophet.'" (John 7:40)

To quote these particular Jews as a reliable and infallible reference is problematic, since they were often mistaken in their exegesis of Scripture, frequently arriving at erroneous conclusions. For instance, they had been unaware of the fact that Scripture stated that Messiah would come out of Galilee:

"Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee?" (John 7:41)

"They (the Pharisees) answered and said unto him, Art thou (Nicodemus) also of Galilee? Search and look: For out of Galilee ariseth no prophet." (John 7:52)

Yet, nearly 800 years earlier, the Prophet Isaiah prophesied exactly this:

"Nevertheless the dimness shall not be such as was in her vexation, when at the first he lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the future he will honorGalilee of the Gentiles, by the way of the sea, along the Jordan... For to us a child is born, to us a Son is given, and the government will be upon his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty GodEverlasting Father, Prince of Peace." (Isaiah 9:1,6)

According to the Aramaic Targum of Jonathan, this passage is a prophecy of Messiah. Hence, to use fallible Jews who were often wrong in their interpretation of Scripture, is indicative of Badawi's alleged proofs and exegesis of the biblical data.

Another alleged prophecy of Muhammad according to Muslims, comes from John the Baptist himself:

"I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance, but He who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire." (Matthew 3:11 N.K.J.V.)

Muslims erroneously assume that this passage could only be referring to Muhammad, not 
Jesus, due to the following three reasons:

Jesus did not come after John, but was his contemporary.

If Jesus was the one whom John was referring to, then why did he not become his follower, if indeed Christ was greater than him?

At one point John even doubted Jesus, sending two disciples to inquire if he was actually the one who was to come. (Matthew 11:1-3)

These factors, the Muslims presume, leave little doubt that it was Muhammad to whom John was referring.

Our responses to all these points are:

Although John and Jesus were contemporaries, Christ did not begin proclaiming the Gospel until after John the Baptist's public ministry had already begun. Hence, Christ did indeed come "after" John. (c.f. Matthew 3:1,3,16; 4:12,17)

It was not John the Baptist's job to follow Jesus, but to prepare his way. (c.f. John 1:23)
Further, John was arrested shortly before Jesus began his Galilean ministry, making it impossible for him to follow Christ. (c.f. Matthew 4:12-17)

Although John had some doubts, Christ reassured him that he indeed was the expected One by appealing to the fulfillment of Isaiah 29:18 and 35:4-6:

"The blind see and the lame walk; the lepers are cleansed and the deaf hear; the dead are raised up and the poor have the Gospel preached to them. "'And blessed is he who is not offended because of Me.'" (Matthew 11:4-6 N.K.J.V.)

To even offset this particular argument, it is surmised that John, being filled with the Holy Spirit, should not have doubted since the Spirit would clearly have told him all things regarding the Messiah beforehand.

This logic is fallacious since the Bible does not state that a prophet must have complete knowledge in regards to a particular situation, but only that which God wants him to know. (c.f. 1 Peter 1:10-12; Matthew 24:36; Acts 1:6-8)

Furthermore, being filled with the Holy Spirit does not mean that a prophet would not make mistakes, but that in spiritual matters he would be guided supernaturally to infallibly proclaim the word of God.

Finally, John himself bears witness that Jesus is indeed the one who was expected:

"The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, 'Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world. This is He of whom I said, "After me comes a Man who ranks higher than I for He was before me"...'I did not know Him, but He who sent me to baptize said to me, "Upon whom you see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, this is He who baptizes with the Holy Spirit." And I have seen and testify that this is the Son of God.'" (John 1:29-30, 33-34)

"He (Jesus) must increase, but I must decrease." (John 3:30)
Even more amazing is that the Quran itself indicates that John came as Jesus' forerunner. (S. 3:39)

Finally, the idea of a Prophet to succeed Christ is altogether denied in the Holy Bible. The Scriptures are clear in indicating that Jesus Christ, not Muhammad, is God's final revelation to mankind and the seal of His approval. This is apparent from Jesus' own statements:
He then began speaking to them in parables:

"A man planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a pit for the winepress, and built a watchtower. Then he rented the vineyard to some farmers and went away on a journey. At harvest time he sent a servant to the tenants to collect from them some of the fruit of the vineyard. But they seized him, beat him and sent him away empty-handed. Then he sent another servant to them; they struck this man on the head and treated him shamefully. He sent still another, and that one they killed. He sent many others; some of them they beat, others they killed. He had one left to send, a son, whom he loved. He sent him last of all, saying, 'They will respect my son.' But the tenants said to one another, 'This is the heir
Come, let's kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.' So they took him and killed him, and threw him out of the vineyard. What then will the owner of the vineyard do? He will come and kill those tenants and give the vineyard to others. Haven't you read the scripture: 'Thestone the builders rejected has become the capstone; the Lord has done this, and it is marvelous in our eyes'?" (Mark 12:1-11 N.I.V.)

In this parable Jesus Christ confirms his unique Divine Sonship, his rightful inheritance to God's estate, and his preeminence over all creation as the last messenger from the Father.

"Do not labor for the food which perishes, but for the food which endures to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give to you; For on him has God the Father set his seal." (John 6:27 R.S.V.)

In the light of the truth as presented from the Holy Scriptures, it now becomes clear that Christ is the seal of prophethood and the end of God's revelation to the world.


Having examined Dr. Badawi's pamphlet, one can easily reach the conclusion that it is filled with logical fallacies, textual misinterpretation and contextual errors. The narrative is attempting strongly to force the Bible into declaring things which it obviously is not, and prophecies which are simply not intended as Dr. Badawi is claiming. It is quite easy to read and interpret the Bible out of context and commit the popular mistake of trying to make it fit ones theology. It is quite another thing however, to consider the Bible in its entirety and allow it to speak for itself on any given topic.

We challenge the reader to search the passages in their true context and ponder whether the Bible indeed mentions Muhammad. In light of the truth, we trust that the reader can judge whether Muhammad is THE Prophet of the Bible, or is this an attempt by over-zealous Muslims to force their interpretation upon the Holy Scriptures.


©2003 Faith Defenders

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